The research base is strong and consistent with regard to student class sizes as well as school size (see, for example, Nye et al, 1989, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999; Word et al., 1990). The research strongly supports that small classes have an advantage over large classes in terms of student performance in the early primary grades. In addition, in most comparisons, the positive impact on minorities is about twice as large as it is for white students. Accordingly, SPS's master schedule includes a significant amount of time in small group instruction in Kindergarten through 3rd grade. In the morning, one-half of the class attends activities (art, music, PE, yoga, character education, Mandarin) while the other half remains in the core classroom for instruction. This effectively limits class size to a maximum of 12 students. In the afternoon, the schedule is reversed so that all students receive core instruction daily in small groups.